Final Exam Review

Below is a guide to studying for your final exam.

NOTE: The exam will be 30-40 multiple choice questions and one essay. The multiple choice questions will focus on material discussed during the 2nd half of the semester, while the essay will be comprehensive – meaning you should be prepared to include information from the 1st and 2nd half of the semester. See more about the essay below.


Persisting Segregation

  • Overt vs. Institutional vs. De Jure discrimination
  • Fair housing act of 1968
  • Three theories for why residential segregation persists
  • Racial steering
  • ‘Unofficial’ Redlining (the mortagage gap and the insurance gap)
  • Reverse redlining
  • Home Mortgage Disclosure Act
  • Residential Segregation and Life Chances


  • Gentrification
  • Luxury Growth Strategy
  • Main social actors that promote gentrification and how they promote gentrification (business, developers, the city, gentrifiers, etc)
  • The main consequences of gentrification (Revitalization and/or Displacement) – think about what ‘consequences’ long-time residents face vs. new residents, and why it matters. (Think about the first half of the semester…)

Affordable Housing

  • Crisis of Affordable Housing
  • Rent-burdened / Severely Rent-burdened
  • How is affordable housing related to labor trends?
  • Public Housing
  • Deconcentration of Poverty – HOPE VI
  • Section 8
  • Tax incentives for developers
  • Mandatory Inclusionary Housing
  • Neighborhood Rezoning
  • Community Land Trusts

Public Space

  • Public Space
  • Private-public vs. private vs. public stewardship
  • Liberal vs. Post-Liberal conceptions of public space
  • Militarization of public space
  • Privatization of public space
  • Business Improvement Districts
  • Fortress architecture
  • Tourist Growth Strategy

Criminal Justice

  • 13th Amendment
  • Black Codes
  • Jim Crow
  • Horizontal vs. Vertical Expansions of the prison system
  • Mass incarceration vs. Hyper-incarceration
  • Disproportionate impact of policing practices
  • Law & Order, Tough on Crime, Southern Strategy & the War on Drugs
  • Broken windows policing
  • Criminalization of poverty
  • Racial Profiling
  • Stop and Frisk
  • Selective prosecution
  • Unfair sentencing guidelines
  • Prison Industrial Complex
  • Primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of contact with the CJ system


  • Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986 (IRCA)
  • Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)
  • Arizona SB 1070
  • Border checkpoints
  • ‘Crimigration’
  • Immigration detention
  • Obama Immigration Reforms (DACA and Deferred Action program)
  • ‘Muslim Ban’
  • Myths used to promote harsh immigration policy
  • Guest Worker Programs
  • May Day

Climate Change & Environmental Justice

  • Climate Change vs. Global Warming
  • COP21
  • Anthropocene
  • Sustainability
  • Resilience
  • Environmental Justice (vs. Mainstream environmentalism)
  • Environmental Racism
  • Eco-Apartheid

Essay Info

There will be ONE ESSAY and it will ask you to explain one of the above topics from a structural perspective. This essay should be comprehensive, meaning it incorporates material from the first & second half the semester.

  • Consider economic inequality, Population and business migrations (suburbanization, etc), repealing of New Deal Policies, etc.


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